Tuesday, August 8, 2017

About Liquid-Gas Phase Equilibrium

The molecules of both liquid and gas attract and repel each other because of spatially distributed electrical charges of their molecules. They are also in a continuous so called Brownian motion where all molecules hit others exchanging speed and energy, the faster ones loosing energy to the slower. Their speed distribution is a normal or Gaussian because they rotate and hit each others every time at a different angles and position respect to the position of the electric charges presented at collision time which means in both phases most molecules move at average speeds and fewer at small and high. However there are big differences in speed between the two phases, liquid and solid. In a closed container those in gaseous phase move way faster in order to create the same pressure and temperature as those much more numerous in the liquid phase. They also do it because only at higher speed they can brake the electrical bonds between them. If it wasn't for the rotation of the electrical charges after a while molecules in a gas would all reach the same speed because at every collision the faster molecule looses some energy to the slower. In liquid phase molecules rotate less because they have to stay mostly bonded with each other. For this reason their distribution of speeds or entropy is smaller than for liquids. The model is also complicated because they all move within a gravitation field which acts to completely separate the liquid and gaseous phase. Some of the total energy of molecules moving withing a gas or liquid or the so called thermal agitation is also stored in the rotation momentum, not only the linear or curve motion momentum (because of reciprocal attraction or repelling of the electric charges their trajectories between two hits might not be a straight line but parables or most likely more complicated ones). So after all the so called difference in entropy between gas and liquids could be nothing more than difference of rotation speeds of molecules within the two phases. Turning a gas into a liquid involves bondage of the molecules and stopping of their rotation movement. Also. When compressing the gas molecules with a linear reciprocating compressor we do not add rotation to them but only linear motion and when cooling them after compression like in an AC we extract mostly rotation because the solid molecules on the side of the pipe vibrate mostly around a rotating point.

https://www.google.com/search?q=liquid+dipole+dipole+interaction

https://www.jstor.org/stable/984598?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

But what happens to the thermal agitation within the liquid if molecules are all attached to others in several points? Will they vibrate as a piece of jello? Are they constantly breaking just to get immediately attached to others? Probably both depending on the temperature and of course at the surface near the interface there will be more breakages and reattachment then at depth.

From this google search however we can see there are many theories about this extraordinarily common, complex and overlooked phenomenon of which none seem to completely follow the intuitive dynamic molecular approach i'm trying to describe here.

https://www.google.com/search?q=liquid+gas+interface&source=lnms&tbm=isch

If we completely remove air from a container filled partially with a liquid then close it will instantly boil until it achieves a certain pressure where the two phases coexist but due to gravity the liquid phase will separate at the bottom and there will be also a membrane like separating surface between the two also due to electrical attraction between molecules in liquid form at the surface.

https://www.google.com/search?q=water+bubble+in+space&source=lnms&tbm=isch

However there are other theories that say the membrane is more of a wave like structure with an ever changing shape.

"This series of experiments led to consideration of some profound questions about the nature of the gas/liquid interface, particularly when distances are measured in nanometers. At this scale, liquids don’t have a sharp edge; rather the transition to a gas occurs slowly and is often “wavy.” Tiny “capillary” waves create a dynamic surface on liquids that look a lot like a rough sea to the molecules on both sides of the interface. And, the shorter the length scale under scrutiny, the rougher things get. To a molecule, a “placid” liquid surface can look like a snapshot of water boiling!"

https://jila.colorado.edu/research/chemical-physics/chemistry-gasliquid-border

We may always have spatially distributed changes in the normal distribution of molecular speeds and densities next to the surface of a stable liquid-gas closed system with changes in temperature which may be measurable or subject of computer simulations and eventually used as a power source.

"It is shown that the presence of the temperature gradient at the interface due to evaporation leads to reduction of the surface tension. The results of MD simulations are in agreement with the results of thermodynamic approach."

http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.478779

"previous simulation studies have mostly examined the bulk thermodynamics of water evaporation, treating water as a continuum, and neglecting effects tied to individual molecules." "Each time a liquid water molecule enters the vapor phase, a coordinated dance of several molecules is involved, according to simulations."

This is one step closer to prove that molecules that evaporate have a minimal and narrow speed range and as soon as they are in gas phase they start absorbing energy from the other molecules just to get at "normal speeds" and this is where one part of the heat absorption through evaporation happens.

But for that molecule to survive above surface it needs a first hit from the molecules of the walls of the reservoir or from another molecule coming from behind that eventually gets back in the liquid loosing its energy. Otherwise it will be hit from one above and return to water with more or less energy than when it escaped while that molecule hitting from above will loose some energy by hitting a slower one and a domino effect will start and a temperature gradient will be created.

By removing the fast molecules on top with a compressor or even with a fan more lower energy and lower entropy molecules from liquid will raise, creating a bigger temperature gradient.

https://physics.aps.org/articles/v8/118

Let's now talk about heat pumps. If for the practicality of this demonstration we use a liquid with boiling point @ environmental temperatures and pressures and instead of a reservoir we partially fill a radiator made of a winding pipe and start extracting gas from it with a compressor, there will be more room for molecules in the gas phase, the pressure will decrease and the liquid will release more molecules but only at speeds close to thermal vibration of the liquid which are much slower thus colder than environment that would start to the fill volume and heat up or catch molecular speed from the molecules of the pipe of the radiator due to temperature difference with environment while cooling the radiator and the gas towards the end of the pipe next to the compressor will have again normal speed distribution and environmental temperature though at lower pressure.

The compressor will have a side effect and that is heating up the gas at temperatures higher than environment because of the movement of the piston that accelerates the moving molecules. So we can add a second radiator right after the compressor with a valve at the end that holds pressure called relief valve that would cool the gas with the relief valve connected back to the first radiator in a closed circuit.

At some point the compressed gas inside the second radiator will start to cool and turn into a liquid but at a higher pressure.

Molecules in the second radiator at some point through cooling though at higher pressure will start to pair or form chains or clumps with much lower average speeds than gas because as liquid they have to stay within the speed limit of breaking the electrical bonds of molecules at that pressure for existing as liquid.

Then the relief valve that holds the higher pressure at the end of second radiator ensuring cooling of the freon at higher pressure inside will let liquid freon go back into the first radiator at a lower pressure when it starts turning into gas again or restart the cycle from the beginning. And this is the description of design and working of the current heat pumps and ACs through molecular dynamics interpretation. Of course there are formulas and all pressures and parameters and capacities of different components that have to stay within certain limits for the whole system to work efficiently but mainly this is how it works.

***

I think the main phenomenon is: fast and slow molecules during compression all collapse into electrical bondage at the same speed or energy regardless of their initial speed while loosing their extra energy to the environment in the second radiator due to higher temperature and pressure created by the compressor in the same time being released from bondage during decompression in the second radiator at constant speeds of electrical bonds breakage instead of random and higher speeds thus decreasing entropy for the system.

Also in the second radiator the system dumps energy by slowing speed for every molecule individually, no matter what its initial speed until their speed is right for pairing or bonding it with another molecule to become liquid and removing it from the gas and this can be done only at higher pressure and temperature than the environment with the help of the compressor also decreasing entropy for each molecule individually.

This happens again through molecular selection. Only those with right speed, no higher will turn into liquid at the surface. If faster molecules end up inside the liquid phase, their heat or energy will be distributed in the rest of the liquid and lost at the contact with the pipe and cooling it while the others will continue hitting each others in the walls of the pipe of the radiator loosing speed and heat or energy to the colder molecules of the metal pipe until new ones are selected. In the end all molecules with random speeds will end up in the liquid phase turned into more constant speed and position molecules and at evaporation emerging being selected like in Maxwell's experiment not only selected but with the extra heat lost in the environment in the second radiator.

We can say through pairing or bonding or turning into liquid during compression molecules loose heat and entropy to the environment.

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Avicii

"It is described as located in the south of the universe and beneath the earth."

"The gods in heaven are beheld by the inhabitants of hell, as they move with their heads inverted; whilst the god, as they cast their eyes downwards, behold the sufferings of those in hell."

"the different Narakas known as Raurava, Śúkara, Rodha, Tála, Viśasana, Mahájwála, Taptakumbha, Lavańa, Vimohana, Rudhirándha, Vaitaraní, Krimíśa, Krimibhojana, Asipatravana, Krishńa, Lálábhaksha, Dáruńa, Púyaváha, Pápa, Vahnijwála, Adhośiras, Sandansa, Kálasútra, Tamas, Avíchi, Śwabhojana, Apratishta, and another Avíchi. These and many other fearful hells are the awful provinces of the kingdom of Yama, terrible with instruments of torture and with fire; into which are hurled all those who are addicted when alive to sinful practices."

I was thinking the other day what else could have been in ancient Indian scriptures. Now i found one more thing. I don't believe these are names for hell. Could it be geographic names for places in the southern hemisphere after some climatic or other type of disaster that have been misinterpreted, badly written or translated over millennia?

I had this picture in a different post but i put it here because of the 23 degrees angle of the djed. Also the two loops on top of the djed could figure Earth's magnetic field and the four disks high voltage. I got this in a blog post that needs to be rewritten since i started with an idea and ended with two others.
Also this one seem to indicate mass migration or threat from mass migration from the uncivilized South, the ecliptic and the link with heat from Sun.

Silly Us

Is there a difference between being ignorant and simply not knowing? I guess it is otherwise they wouldn't have invented and spread the word.

Who are they. Those who stay (or better said walk) ahead of us. Those who had more time and motivation to read and understand than any of this planet. Living in Europe for one thousand years and constantly rejected because of looking different and having a different culture they tried and in the end succeeded in overcoming the locals mostly by understanding their weaknesses.

When i was in High School or whatever that was (High School for me, kinda of strange, circus with a trained animal for them) i had this class and one time roommate who read a book every day. He tried to put me through the same rhythm. Was he trying to make me one of them? Didn't have the same motivation. I was born from a simple and lazy breed. Couldn't keep the pace. Though endowed by nature with memory and some intelligence i was simply not one of them.

Didn't have time yet to look at my pace through the curricula for High School students or how it was called back then in the XIX century Hungary. I bet the list was long and rich and contained readings in Latin and Greek and philosophers and stuff. Back then in all Europe High School was something and everybody who passed through it had to have a number of readings impossible to imagine in today's world where football is way more important.

I was thinking at what i just wrote for days however did not have time to research or develop. So i will quit this subject leaving these paragraphs as note because i have something way more practical and important to write about. But not before bringing a memory from an exam in High School. Half way through or from second to third year we had an exam (the rung as they called it back then). It was quite a formality and almost everybody was passing it and to me at least was not meant as an exam but it happened and it just crossed my mind...

(The Hindu religion has defined a number of different types of hell. How is it called the one when one stays and remembers everything he had done so far and reevaluates all his life thinking of how it should have been if he knew this and that?)

So at the exam i had to answer the question. Which element of the two, Silicon and Germanium is more spread on the surface of the Earth? Coincidentally, not because of studying which i didn't, i knew the answer. It was Silicon. So i got a good point answering that. (Now i'm also convinced the teacher knew i knew the answer).

So i will quit now these silly memories or let them rest to write something really important about silicon. So important everybody needs to know about it. Cause we can't rely on nobody when it comes to our health even if the problems concerns us all as a society. Cause it seems like the known leaders are determined or hell bent to constantly go forward and leave us to our own ignorance.

As already stated above silicon is more spread in nature then germanium (that question was about these two elements used as semiconductors) now i'm concerned about silicon in a more general way. So how spread is silicon in nature, on Earth and in Universe? According to Wikipedia:

Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in dustssandsplanetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen.

So it's not only the Silicon Valley. We all live on a Silicon Planet. What's important about? We are ignoring it. Should we? Probably, cause we have better things to do all day than remember what is the ground we step made of. But at least from time to time, at important holidays, i don't know, once a year we should remember. Maybe more than others we should have a Silicon Day to remember and celebrate.

Purest silicon in crystal form with almost no other elements in it. We all know, in crucibles at a very tightly controlled temperature they grow bars made of one crystal only which then they cut in discs or wafers as they call them which are further cut in chips and used to make circuits at the heart of any gadget today. Where do they take that silicon from? Not from the beaches where silicon in sand is mixed with other stuff. They quarry it from places where is purest so they would start from there with further refining it.

The grayest the sand on the beach the more silicon in it. And now i'm getting closer to the more interesting part or the health related one.

Is sand on the beach dangerous to health?

For that i will try to bring first the facts about inhaling dust. I saw lungs are very tough organs. There are people who smoke for decades, of whom the lungs change color and become scarred and sickened and still work for oxygenating the blood until those guys die some even from other diseases which may or not be related.

One thing lungs do to keep (us) functioning. Eliminate dust. They have these tiny vibrating hairs inside which are oriented towards the air when flowing outside. Anything that gets in there need to be eliminated otherwise in about several days to weeks or month, i don't know, i'm just guessing, the lungs will be simply filled with dust. Cause there is (unfortunately) dust is in any kind of air we breath, except that in the middle of the Ocean or in a clean room.

(How ironic is to live on the coast of the biggest ocean with wind blowing mostly from that direction and still breath polluted air?)

Anyways. Anybody have ever asked themselves what happens to the dust after it gets eliminated from lungs, probably mixed with moist mucus? It's very simple, it gets into your esophagus, stomach and if an insoluble mineral gets eliminated from your body together with undigested food.

Back to the beaches. On the beaches where wind and waves constantly grind the sand the grains become smaller and smaller until the smallest will eventually fly away and mix with soil or turn into clay at some distance. But the grinding with self under wind or wave action means the grains, big or small are rounded. This is natural dust. Sand or silica dust we have to inhale anywhere if we leave on the surface of the Earth is rounded because it went through this natural grinding process. Same goes for any other type of natural mineral dust. Rounded mineral dust particles will give you no problems to eliminate from lungs and digestive tract. Because we are adapted or built for it.

Silicon or silica naturally is not an absorbent mineral. No stable mineral is absorbent because in most natural occurrences i solid. But processed in some very interesting ways they can make it porous silicon, similar with making porous carbon (activated charcoal), so porous water can get trapped inside thus making it absorbent. They make porous absorbent materials out of silicon because it's cheap and chemically stable and suitable for the job. But is very brittle because it's like an open cell foam with tiny walls fro the cells.

What else is made of silica. Glass. Glass is also made of purified silica sand but is not crystalline. What is a crystal and what is not. Can read further i'm not going to go into this right now.

(There are numerous discussions on the web whether glass is actually more a frozen liquid then solid. Frozen seem not the right term since frozen water is also in crystal form.)

Ceramics are partially melted clay that is partially made of silica particles that once were sand and dust.

Anyways. What else is made of silicon or silica. Mineral insulation that is actually made of solidified basaltic lava that has mostly silicon but other materials like iron or calcium in it. It first occurred in nature though very rare. They found i don't know where in South America natural flying fibers made of solidified lava when hot lava was exposed to high winds. Mixed with other minerals, mainly silica, it was the (terrible) idea for making fibers that are now used as thermal insulation when building houses.

The fiber mineral insulation is not what insulates. What insulates is the air that is trapped within. Air is insulating if not moving. If the outer walls where empty inside like the inner ones (talking about Levi-town style buildings that are commonly found only in the US) air would circulate and exchange heat. The mineral fibers are meant to trap the air so it won't move.

So they found these lava fibers and thought about and combined with the only known way of making cheap fibers out of melted stuff. Cotton candy. Lava which is solidified material that had been melted inside Earth for eons is homogeneous enough to be remelted and turned into fibers in machine similar with cotton candy machines only difference being higher temperature. Though the thickness of the fibers cannot be controlled in the end it looks just like cotton candy though way more brittle and way less yummy. (If you don't believe me take a 5 minutes trip into your attic with loose mineral wool (wool-rock as they call it) on top of the roof (and step only on beams if you don't want to fall inside).

For some is the golden fleece. I mean you quarry lava, melt it and make cotton candy out of it and sell it to big kids. The cost is mostly the heat to melt it. Dirt cheap or lava cheap mineral insulation is gold for some and hell for all the others.

Cause when you live in such a house at any vibration the brittle mineral fibers will break further and the tiniest pieces will find their ways through cracks or nail holes inside your breathing space.

Also the absorbent silica used for pet boxes or in mechanics' shops. Melted silica cooled with water i don't know i forgot the process (also a cheap one of course) becomes very porous with room for water and oil an stuff. But that material is also very brittle and when it breaks it turns, as insulation dust, into sharp dust that can be inhaled accidentally.

Though your body was build to inhale continuously and tolerate and eliminate round dust particles, when sharp particles end into your stomach and intestine the troubles begin. But they never end because you will live in that house and use that litter box forever.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

The Lists

These lists contain only links, none of the pictures where uploaded by me but they are downloaded into you computer from the various sites when you browse the list. To verify this you can click on the links that start with http and are written with smaller underlined blue letters. Once opened a picture you can read in the browser in the upper left corner the web address of the actual location of the picture. More than that, if you click on the names written and underlined in blue with larger fonts next to their pictures you get a full google images search on their name, search that most of the times includes the pictures chosen for comparison. For each comparison there is the official name and picture on the left and usually two of the actor with his/her name on the right.

Aceste liste conțin doar link-uri, nici una din fotografii nu a fost încărcată de mine, ele sunt descărcate în calc. dvs. în momentul când accesați listele de pe diferitele site-uri. Pentru a verifica puteți face click pe link-urile respective care încep cu htttp... și sunt scrise cu litere albastre mai mici. Odată deschisă o fotografie puteți citi în căsuța de adresă a browser-ului adresa web a fotografiei respective adică unde se află ea. Mai mult decât atât dacă se face clic pe numele scrise și subliniate cu albastru se obține o cătuare google de imagini pe numele respectiv care de cele mai multe ori include și fotografiile alese de mine pentru comparație. Pentru fiecare comparație numele și fotografia oficială a personajului public este în stânga și de obicei două fotografii și numele actorului în dreapta.

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1G0uc3ogv0U5zDhb9GIBDZCCXVTGwDLKM0dNKQTyJ3qI/pubhtml

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1DffXFRzr5t6Ue19JgGTQznRNW7oIkICTZzeSvlE-CSA/pubhtml

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Z8SLYvFoAPH6yxsRV0iWf7Amt2WpTuE2eBQ6EMVVI4o/pubhtml

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Us5v7qjDC_3C71fZQd994uR-0rP39oavUMkoU9SP50c/pubhtml

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1LTd9KISSo7o4W1rHMB_6DNUkEefWDgln8EIx_nZH-3Q/pubhtml

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1uTJAWD489F89j471IdEYRxIqV3V4I1n3RpeRuy5GHgg/pubhtml

Friday, July 7, 2017

Another Walk at the Refuge

It's early July and it looks like the weather is delayed like by a month or so it's so weird, the artificial wetland area has been emptied, some Himalayan blackberries are in bloom and others are almost ripe. And the smell of smoke and lavender. Click on any picture to go full size or wheel click for maximum.